by Robin Greninger | 9:28 am


What do unusual microbes in a Chilean desert and life on Mars have in common? More than one might have thought.

Scientists recently found organisms that for decades had been lying dormant in the desert sand, without water. The microbes are the first such discovered, and scientists hypothesize that similar life forms could be tucked away in the bright red soil of Mars.

In 2015, after rain fell in the Atacama desert in Chile for the first time in 40 years, scientists from Washington State University observed something fantastic: Life bloomed in what had long been a barren terrain. Upon closer examination, it was determined that the rain did not bring life to the Atacama desert, but rather awakened microbes that had long been living dormant. The findings have now been published online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

The team took soil samples back to their lab for a genome analysis. Further testing showed that it was not one but many microorganisms that had evolved a way to survive in one of the driest environments on Earth. If organisms could withstand such dry habitat on our planet, what’s stopping them from doing the same on another?

Mars is dry but not completely waterless. According to NASA, there is frozen water underneath the Martian surface. A slab of ice as large as Texas and California combined—with enough water to fill Lake Michigan twice over—was detected in 2002. Scientists believe Mars could have had oceans and lakes perhaps several billion years ago. If life on Mars is anything like life on Earth, where there is water, life often follows.

This new finding suggests that if there was once life on Mars, it’s possible that some organisms could be lying dormant, waiting for conditions on the planet to once again enable them to thrive—just like those found in Chile.

“We know there is water frozen in the Martian soil and recent research strongly suggests nightly snowfalls and other increased moisture events near the surface,” said a study co-author, Dirk Schulze-Makuch, a planetary scientist at Washington State University, in a statement. “If life ever evolved on Mars, our research suggests it could have found a subsurface niche beneath today’s severely hyper-arid surface.”

The team plans to study these Atacama organisms further in order to better understand their survival adaptations. This research could better prepare us to study potential life on Mars when we arrive at the Red Planet, possibly in the 2030s.

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by Robin Greninger | 9:21 am


The Atacama Desert, primarily located in northern Chile, is the driest nonpolar region on Earth. In its center, lies a hyperarid core in which no precipitation had been recorded for 500 years, until 2015, when a sprinkling of rain fell on the area.

You might expect that this rain would have caused a sudden blooming in the amount of life in the region—which is limited to a handful of microbe species. However, the water had quite the opposite effect, wiping out most of the microbes that lived there, according to a paper published in the journal Scientific Reports.

“When the rains came to the Atacama, we were hoping for majestic blooms and deserts springing to life,” Alberto Fairen, co-author of the study from Cornell University, said in a statement. “Instead, we learned the contrary, as we found that rain in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert caused a massive extinction of most of the indigenous microbial species there.”

“The hyperdry soils before the rains were inhabited by up to 16 different, ancient microbe species,” he said. “After it rained, there were only two to four microbe species found in the lagoons. The extinction event was massive.”

According to the team, the sudden and massive input of water in regions that have remained hyperarid for millions of years is harmful for most of the surface microbial species—which are exquisitely adapted to survive in the inhospitable conditions. The sudden overabundance of water disrupts the normal functioning of the microbes via a process known as “osmotic shock.”

A changing climate over the Pacific is thought to have been responsible for bringing the first rain in centuries to the Atacama’s hyperarid core. These surprise precipitation events took place on March 25 and August 9, 2015, and again on June 7, 2017.

The new findings could have significant implications for our understanding of how microbial life evolved on Mars (if it ever existed at all, of course). The Atacama has long been of interest to astrobiologists due to its similarities with the Martian surface.

Mars has experienced a complex history of global climate changes, including a first period between 4.5 billion and 3.5 billion years ago, when the planet may have sustained large amounts of water on the surface. Over time, the climate became increasingly dry until the surface became the vast desert that we recognize today.

However, this transition was interrupted by enormous discharges of water that flooded regions on the surface on several occasions after 3.5 billion years ago.

As a result, “hypothetical local ecosystems existing in some places on Mars, and adapted to the increasingly dryness of the Mars surface and subsurface after 3.5 billion years ago, would have been later episodically exposed to even stronger osmotic stresses than those we have reported here for the Atacama microorganisms,” the authors wrote in the study.

Consequently, “the recurrence of liquid water on the surface of Mars after the earliest times might have contributed to decimate local or regional ecosystems, instead of being an opportunity for life to bloom again in the flooded areas,” they said.

In addition, the new findings may shed new light on controversial samples collected by the Viking space probes in 1976. One experiment conducted by the NASA landers found evidence indicating the presence of life, while another on the same sample, found no traces of organic material.

“The negative results obtained with the life-detecting instruments onboard the 1976 Viking landers may find the simplest explanation in the fact that, in both experiments, samples were incubated with various watery solutions,” the authors wrote.

“Any potential Martian cells would have not been exposed to such elevated values of water activity for at least millions of years, so their sampling and inclusion in the Viking experiments would have caused first their osmotic burst, and then the subsequent destruction of the organic molecules,” the researchers said.

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by Robin Greninger | 9:19 am


Laboratory-grown meat could soon be available, with the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Food and Drug Administration announcing that they would oversee its production so it could be safely sold to consumers across the country.

A joint statement released by the two agencies said they would be working together to “foster these innovative food products and maintain the highest standards of public health.” The FDA would be in charge of regulating the collection, banking and growing of the cells used to make artificial meat, while the USDA would work on the production and labeling of food products.

“A transition from FDA to USDA oversight will occur during the cell harvest stage,” the statement said.“This regulatory framework will leverage both the FDA’s experience regulating cell-culture technology and living biosystems and the USDA’s expertise in regulating livestock and poultry products for human consumption. USDA and FDA are confident that this regulatory framework can be successfully implemented and assure the safety of these products.”

In 2013, scientists created the first-ever burger made from cultured meat. Since then funding for artificial meat has skyrocketed, with private companies and high-profile investors making huge strides into its commercial development. Meat is derived from stem cells taken from poultry and livestock that is then turned into muscle tissue.

There are many benefits to lab-grown meat. It would eliminate the need for animals to be bred and slaughtered—in the U.S. alone, around 9 billion chickens and 32 million cattle are killed every year. It would also help limit climate change—agriculture, and meat production in particular, is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions. There would also be major financial incentives if the technology could be successfully scaled.

But the regulatory framework for how these products would end up on the plates of consumers has until now been lacking.

In October, the FDA and the USDA held a meeting to discuss the potential of lab-grown meat products. They discussed the regulatory framework needed to implement the production of foods. At the moment, they are “actively refining the technical details” but say that collectively, they have the authority to regulate the system so that no additional legislation will be required.

Following the statement, industry experts welcomed the announcement. Brian Spears, from the cultured meat start-up New Age Meats, told FoodNavigator-USA: “[It] reduces uncertainty and allows us to move forward in developing innovative technology here in the United States to make meat tastier, healthier and more sustainable. The joint framework allows us to more quickly create safe, high paying jobs in both [research and development] and manufacturing.”

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